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  Country name: Republic of India
  Capital: New Delhi
  Government type: Federal republic
  Population: 1,095,351,995
  Currency: Indian Rupee (INR)
 
 

Flag

  Three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band.
   
  Area
  Land: 2,973,190 sq km, Water: 314,400 sq km
Total: 3,287,590 sq km
   
  Land boundaries
  Border countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
Coastline: 7,000 km
Total: 14,103 km
   
  Elevation extremes
  Lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
   
 
Geography note   Geographic coordinates
India dominates South Asian subcontinent. It is located near important Indian Ocean trade router. Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal.   20 00 N, 77 00 E
   
  Terrain
  Upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
   
  Languages
  English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language
   
  Religions
  Hindu 81.3%, Muslim 12%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi 2.5% (2000)
   
  Society/Culture
  Over thousands of years of its history, India has been invaded from the Iranian plateau, Central Asia, Arabia, Afghanistan, and the West; Indian people and culture have absorbed and changed these influences to produce a remarkable racial and cultural synthesis
   
  Economy
  India's economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of support services. Government controls have been reduced on foreign trade and investment, and privatization of domestic output has proceeded slowly. The economy has posted an excellent average growth rate of 6% since 1990, reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. India is capitalizing on its large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers. Despite strong growth, the World Bank and others worry about the continuing public-sector budget deficit, running at approximately 10% of GDP.
   
  Brief History of India
  India's history goes back almost six thousand years and has passed through many different stages and societies and invasions from outside. The earliest civilization was in the Indus Valley (now in Pakistan), with its well-planned city-states of Harappa And Mohenjadaro, which lasted from 3250 to 1500 B.C. At that point the Aryans came in from the North and spread through large parts of India bringing with them their culture and religious beliefs, including the Hindu Religion.

In 567 B.C. Gautama Buddha was born, who was the founder of the Buddhist Religion. Also at around this time Mahavira lived, who started the Jain Religion. Two hundred years later, in the 4th century B.C., Emperor Ashoka, one of the greatest leaders of all of India's history, led the Mauryan Empire to take over almost all of what is now modern India.
They were followed by the Guptas in the north, while in the south part of India several different Hindu empires, the Cholas, the Pandyas and the Cheras spread and grew, trading with Europe and other parts of Asia till the end of the 1100s.
Christianity entered India at about the same time as it came to Europe. Legend has it that St. Thomas the Apostle arrived in India in 52 A.D. Even earlier than that people of the Jewish Religion arrived on India's shores.
In approximately the 7th century A.D. , a group of Zoroastrians, or Parsees, landed in Gujarat and became part of the large mix of religions in India today, each of which adds its important and distinctive flavor.
In the 15th century the Sikh Religion was born in the Punjab, in northern India.
In 1192, Mohammed of Ghori, a ruler from Afghanistan, came into India and captured several places in the north including Delhi. When he went home he left one of his generals in charge who became the first Sultan of Delhi. During this time Islam, the Muslim religion, was introduced into India.
The Delhi Sultanate gradually took control of more and more of North India over the next 200 years, till Timur, who was called "Timur the Lame" or "Tamberlane" came from Central Asia in late 14th century to attack India. He and his army stole all the valuables that they could carry and left again, and after that the Delhi Sultanate was never so strong again. Soon the Moghuls, who were from Central Asia, came in and took control in the north.
The South India had through out this had its own history and came under the sway of mainland India only under Moghuls. However through out the history, it had its own kingdoms and empires holding sway over one another during different periods.

The Europeans - Portuguese, French, Dutch, Danish and British - started arriving in the early 1600s. All of them held territories in India and made friends and enemies among India's rulers as they got more involved, but it was the British who eventually controlled most of India and finally made it one of their colonies.

India got its Independence from Britain in 1947 after a long struggle led mostly by Mahatma Gandhi. In the process of becoming independent India was partitioned and a large area of North West and eastern India became Pakistan.
In the years Since Independence India has made huge progress and coped with great problems, has developed its industry and its agriculture, and has maintained a system of government which makes it the largest democracy in the world.

   
  Climate and weather
  India's climate is defined by three seasons - the hot, the wet (monsoon) and the cool, each of which can vary in duration from north to south. The most pleasant time to visit most places is during the cooler period: November to around mid-February. In November the time for Pushkar fair . The climate will be pleasant with a slight chill in the morning and late evenings.

Blue - Highest Temperature in °F
Orange - Lowest Temperature °F
Grey - Average Rainfall
   
 
Agra
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
73
78
89
101
107
105
95
92
98
94
85
76
43
46
55
68
77
84
80
78
75
62
49
44
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.4
2.4
8.6
8.1
4.6
0.7
0.1
0.3
Ahmedabad 
84
88
96
104
105
100
92
89
92
96
91
88
53
58
66
73
79
81
78
76
76
70
61
55
0
0
0
0
0
4
13
8
6
1
0
0
Calcutta
80
84
96
97
96
92
90
89
90
89
84
79
55
59
69
76
78
79
77
78
78
74
64
55
0.4
1.2
1.4
1.8
5.5
12
13
13
10
4.5
0.8
0.2
Chennai
86
88
81
95
100
100
97
95
93
89
86
82
68
70
75
79
82
82
79
79
77
77
77
70
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
5
5
10
12
5
Cochin
88
88
88
88
88
88
82
82
82
84
86
86
73
74
79
79
79
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
0
1
2
6
14
30
23
15
9
13
7
1
Darjeeling
47
48
55
61
62
65
66
66
65
62
56
51
35
37
43
49
52
57
58
58
56
53
43
51
0.5
1.2
1.9
4.1
9.6
24
33
27
19
5.4
0.8
0.3
Delhi 
70
75
87
97
105
102
96
93
93
93
84
73
44
49
58
68
79
79
81
79
75
65
52
46
0.9
0.7
0.5
0.3
0.5
3
7
7
5
0.4
0.1
0.4
Goa
85
85
87
89
90
87
84
83
83
85
86
85
70
71
75
79
81
77
76
76
75
75
73
70
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.7
2.6
29.6
31.2
15.9
9.5
3.8
1.3
0.2
Jaipur
73
77
88
98
106
103
94
91
93
94
85
76
47
51
56
69
77
80
78
76
73
64
54
48
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.6
2.2
7.7
8.1
3.2
0.5
0.1
0.2
Kathmandu 
66
67
77
82
86
85
84
83
83
80
74
67
35
39
45
53
61
67
68
68
66
56
45
37
0.6
1
0.4
2
5
10
15
14
6
1
0.2
0.1
Leh 
27
33
44
54
53
70
76
76
70
58
46
35
7
11
21
30
37
44
50
50
42
30
20
12
0.5
0.3
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.6
0.7
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.3
Madurai 
86
90
95
97
100
99
97
95
95
81
88
86
70
72
73
77
79
79
79
77
77
75
73
72
1
1
1
3
2
1
2
5
5
7
6
1
Mumbai
83
83
86
89
91
89
86
85
86
89
89
87
66
67
72
76
80
79
77
76
77
76
73
69
0.1
0.1
0.1
0
0.7
19
24
13
10
2.5
0.5
0.1
Mysore
84
89
94
95
92
85
82
83
84
84
84
82
61
64
68
70
70
68
67
67
67
67
64
61
0.1
0.2
0.5
2.3
5.6
2.5
2.7
3.3
5
5.9
2.7
0.4
Shimla 
48
50
57
66
73
75
70
68
68
64
59
52
36
37
45
52
59
61
61
59
57
52
45
39
2
2
2
1
2
6
16
15
8
2
0
1
   
  More info on India >
 
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